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  • Writer's pictureJoanne Jacobs

Once they can decode, the next step is knowledge

The mainstream media has declared a victor in the "reading wars," writes Robert Pondiscio. Both TIME and The New Yorker had stories last month on the efficacy of research-backed reading instruction instead of "balanced literacy."

Photo: Tima Miroshnichenko/Pexels

But it's not enough for students to master foundational skills, such as phonics, he writes. To make sense of what they read, students need to build knowledge.

Pondiscio, who once worked for the Core Knowledge Foundation, was a co-founder of the Knowledge Matters Campaign, which is reminding people that reading comprehension, which requires background knowledge, is an essential part of the "science of reading."

"The most important job of public education in a diverse nation is to ensure that every child — rich or poor; Black, White, or Brown — has fair and equal access to the same body of knowledge in history, science, art, and literature," he writes.

Fashionable thought in education practice and policy has long run in the opposite direction, dwelling on socioeconomic differences between students, and nearly fetishizing personalized or culturally-affirming curricular content. . . . Our reluctance to state what kids need to know surely contributed to the dominance (and failure, mostly) of content-agnostic “comprehension strategies” instruction and “leveled” reading.

"We can't avoid choosing" which knowledge to teach, says University of Virginia cognitive scientist Dan Willingham. "Incoherence . . . is bad for everyone and worst for children with limited opportunities to acquire background knowledge outside of school.”

"The explanation for education disparities isn’t access to effective teachers or the level of school funding," writes Natalie Wexler. The U.S. "spends more per pupil than many other countries where students do better on international tests."

All students need access to "academic knowledge and vocabulary" to build reading comprehension, she writes. If parents can't provide that at home, children need to get it at school. But most elementary schools don't spend much time on knowledge-building subjects such as history, geography, science, and the arts. Instead, "elementary schools spend the bulk of the day having students practice illusory reading comprehension 'skills' on easy-to-read books about random topics."

An increasing number of schools are switching to a fundamentally different kind of elementary curriculum, one that systematically build kids’ academic knowledge beginning in the early elementary years . . . At higher grade levels, schools are beginning to use explicit, carefully sequenced writing instruction to identify and compensate for gaps in knowledge that prevent students from learning what the curriculum expects. But these approaches are still far from being the norm.

"Yes, we need effective teachers—but the best way to enable teachers to be effective is to provide them with a knowledge-building curriculum and the training to implement it well," concludes Wexler, author of The Knowledge Gap. "Yes, we need fair and adequate school funding — but unless we know how to spend it wisely, it won’t make much difference (and a good curriculum costs no more than a bad one)."

In U.S. News, Holly Korbey has advice for parents on how to spot whether their child's school is using a research-based reading program or "balanced literacy." Beware, she writes, of "Tryin' Lion."

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Bruce Smith
Bruce Smith
Sep 26, 2022

Balanced literacy gets a lot of undeserved criticism these days. While using it instead of phonics has long been a mistake, it can be a highly effective approach for building fluency, traditionally emphasized around the second & third grades, before children begin "reading to learn" (after having "learned to read") around fourth grade, according to Jeanne Chall, after whom the Harvard Reading Lab is named, an early proponent of phonics on the National Reading Council, and someone whose "Stages of Reading Development" had a lasting effect upon my training as a literacy coach.


Malcolm Kirkpatrick
Malcolm Kirkpatrick
Sep 23, 2022

For every locality A the term "the government of A" names the largest dealer in interpersonal violence in that locality (definition, after Weber). You can, without introducing significant error, model government as a territorially defined extortion racket or as a giant shopping mall operator with an armed in-house security service.

The State (i.e., government, generally) cannot subsidize education without an operational definition of "education". The State (i.e., government, generally) cannot compel attendance at school without operational definitions of "attendance" and "school". The State (i.e., government, generally) cannot employ teachers without an operational definition of "teacher".

The State's definitions then bind children, parents, prospective providers of education services, and taxpayers.

"The most important job of public education in a diverse nation…


Sep 23, 2022

In the elementary years, the biggest difference between my kids' homeschool education and my public school education was the amount of content. Most of the content that I absorbed was from reading that I did in my free time or from reading the entire textbook during my spare time at school, when the class only covered a few chapters.

My geography knowledge was abysmal, so I was determined that my kids do better. When we read history, we found every country on the map or globe. Shockingly, history makes much more sense when you actually understand where everthing is in relationship to each other and to waterways and mountain ranges.

In my volunteer work, I do see schools giving more…

Sep 24, 2022
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For me, the difference between my ele days and my childrens' is mostly the time wasted. I had three outdoor recesses in primary, they had one and that was often indoors in front of a video. I had small group instruction in reading and math placed by instructional need after the first half of first grade, they had whole class undifferentiated below grade level after full inclusion began. For me, everyone learned the reading and math material, some at a slower pace, but by eighth grade everyone that was not classified was on grade level or higher. For them, roughly half of the academic content was omitted, and reading assignments were a year below grade level. We all went…

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