In Goodnight iPad, Ann Droyd (possibly a pseudonym) adapts the children’s classic for a new generation that has trouble disconnecting.
Some cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder may be a sleep disorder in disguise, writes Vatsal G. Thakkar, a psychiatry professor, in the New York Times.
Eleven percent of schoolchildren have been diagnosed with ADHD, he writes. Adult diagnoses are up too.
For some people — especially children — sleep deprivation does not necessarily cause lethargy; instead they become hyperactive and unfocused.
Adults and children are sleeping less, Thakkar writes.
The number of adults who reported sleeping fewer than seven hours each night went from some 2 percent in 1960 to more than 35 percent in 2011. Sleep is even more crucial for children, who need delta sleep — the deep, rejuvenating, slow-wave kind — for proper growth and development. Yet today’s youngsters sleep more than an hour less than they did a hundred years ago. And for all ages, contemporary daytime activities — marked by nonstop 14-hour schedules and inescapable melatonin-inhibiting iDevices — often impair sleep. It might just be a coincidence, but this sleep-restricting lifestyle began getting more extreme in the 1990s, the decade with the explosion in A.D.H.D. diagnoses.
Children with an A.D.H.D. diagnosis are likely to also have “sleep-disordered breathing like apnea or snoring, restless leg syndrome or non-restorative sleep, in which delta sleep is frequently interrupted,” he writes.
In a 2004 study, 34 children with A.D.H.D. all showed a deficit of delta sleep, compared with only a few of the 32 control subjects.
Sleep disorders can be treated, writes Thakkar, who has a rare form of narcolepsy.
Early high school start times don’t fit adolescents’ sleep patterns, research shows. “Tor a teenager, a 7 a.m. alarm call is the equivalent of a 5 a.m. start for people in their 50s,” writes Russell Foster in New Scientist. It’s the hormones.
Middle schoolers do better when school starts — and ends — later, according to a North Carolina study by economist Finley Edwards described in Education Next.
. . . delaying school start times by one hour, from roughly 7:30 to 8:30, increases standardized test scores by at least 2 percentile points in math and 1 percentile point in reading.
Starting early has the most effect on older middle schoolers, supporting the theory that hormonal changes make it hard for adolescents to get to sleep in the early evening, Edwards writes. Students get more sleep and have fewer absences. But late starts have other advantages: With less unsupervised time after school, latebirds spend more time on homework and watch less TV.
“The effect of a later start time in both math and reading is more than twice as large for students in the bottom third of the test-score distribution than for students in the top third,” Edwards found.
Start times had no effect on elementary students, the study found, but elementary schools start later than middle schools, so that could obscure the effect.
Districts could swap elementary and secondary school start times to improve achievement without spending more on busing, Edwards suggests. Or districts could invest in more buses to start all schools at 8:30 or later. The achievement gain would be similar to the effect of cutting class sizes at a fraction of the cost.
While federal guidelines recommend 9.25 hours of sleep each night for students, that could be too much for teens, concludes a new study, which correlated students’ hours of sleep to reading and math scores.
The study found the optimal sleep amount for 10-year-olds ranges between 9 and 9.5 hours, while for 18-year-olds it is slightly less than 7 hours. At ages 12 and 16, children need between 8.34 to 8.43 hours and 7.02 to 7.35 hours, respectively, the study found.
It’s possible too much sleep may reduce academic achievement, the authors speculated. I can’t believe many kids are getting too much sleep as school start times move earlier and earlier.
Some ultra-competitive private schools are assigning less homework to avoid overstressing students, reports the New York Times. Of course, that means cutting back to only four hours a night or perhaps even 3.5 hours.
Dalton invited Harris Cooper, a professor of neuroscience and psychology at Duke University, to speak last spring about the link between homework and learning. “At five hours a night,” he said of the homework burden, “they likely won’t do any worse if they only bring home four.”
. . . Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at the Stanford School of Education, co-authored a 2007 paper that looked at 496 students at one private and one public school and found that those with more than 3.5 hours of homework a night had an increased risk of physical and mental health issues, like sleep deprivation, ulcers and headaches. In a separate study of 26 schools, Ms. Pope said, 67 percent of more than 10,000 students reported that they were “often” or “always” stressed out.
“At some point, we say too much is too much,” Ms. Pope said. “In our study, that’s 3.5 hours.”
Not all schools are scaling back: Some parents equate heavy backpacks and sleep deprivation with excellence.
College students who avoid early-morning classes get more sleep — and lower grades, concludes a study at St. Lawrence University.