In addition to the U.S., students were surveyed in UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden between 1990 and 2015, reports TIME.
Schools “don’t take into account that sex is a potentially embarrassing and anxiety provoking topic,” study author Pandora Pound, a research fellow at the University of Bristol, told TIME. “The result can be awkward, painful and unsatisfactory for all involved.”
The second major problem was that schools seemed to deny that their students were sexually active, which made the information out of touch with reality, irrelevant and overly skewed toward heterosexual intercourse, the researchers say. There was little practical information: telling students about community-health services, for example, what to do if they got pregnant or the pros and cons of different kinds of birth control. Teachers also presented the information as overly scientific, with hardly a nod to pleasure and desire; female pleasure, specifically, was rarely mentioned.
Sex ed “needs to be delivered by experts who are sex positive, who enjoy their work and who are in a position to maintain clear boundaries with students,” Pound says. Students say it’s “cringey” to hear their regular teachers discussing sex.