Why poor kids don’t try for top colleges

Genesis Morales works on the computer at Bryan Adams High School in Dallas. Photo: Cooper Neill, Texas Tribune

“One Dallas-area high school sent more than 60 students to University of Texas-Austin last year,” report Neena Satija and Matthew Watkins in the Texas Tribune. A few miles away, a high-poverty, high-minority school sent one.

Students who rank in the top 10 percent of their senior class are guaranteed a spot in any state university. (At UT-Austin, a student usually needs to be in the top 7 percent.)

Yet, across the state, many low-income, first-generation students don’t apply to top colleges, write Satija and Watkins. Some fear they don’t belong at elite schools like UT-Austin.

Genesis Morales, a senior who ranks 8th in her class at Bryan Adams High, qualifies for automatic admission to UT-Austin, but didn’t apply.

. . . her parents, who are from Mexico, didn’t graduate high school. Her dad is a landscaper, and her mom is a factory worker. For years, her only impressions of college came from watching television shows.

“It’s people who have money, people who are, like, prodigies and stuff, [who] end up there. For me, I was never surrounded by those people — people who went to college.”

Persuaded to aim higher than community college, Morales set her sights on going to Texas Woman’s University in Denton. She prefers a lower-ranked school. “I feel I’m not going to be as smart. So when it comes to tough schools, I kind of stay away,” she said.

Many top-ranked students at Bryan Adams are applying to UT’s less-selective campuses in the Dallas area, reports the Tribune.

. . . most low-income students of color prefer to stay close to home, said Jane Lincove, an assistant professor at Tulane University who studies college access.

In addition to that, at the branch campuses, “there’s more students who look like them, and there’s more students who went to their high schools,” Lincove said of minority students.

Despite her high grades, Morales’ SAT score is in the 43rd percentile, which is low for UT-Austin students. She believes she’d have trouble completing a degree.

“At the state’s two flagships, UT-Austin and Texas A&M University, 72 percent of Hispanic students graduate within six years, compared with 49 percent at Texas Woman’s,” write Satija and Watkins. Of course, that ignores the apple-orange issue: The flagship schools enroll academically superior Hispanic students compared to Texas Woman’s.

Some believe affirmative action can hurt minority students by getting them into top colleges, where they’ll struggle academically, instead of less-elite colleges, where they’ll be as prepared as their classmates. Mikhail Zinshteyn looks at the debate on “mismatch theory.”

Becoming a teacher and a mentor

Schools need male Hispanic teachers to serve as role models, Jose Garza’s mentor told him more than 15 years ago. A charter school teacher, Garza is now a mentor to new teachers at Partnership to Uplift Communities Schools (PUC) in Los Angeles.

CREDO: Urban charter students learn more

All students receive two hours of tutoring a day at Boston’s high-performing MATCH school.

In 41 cities, charter students learn significantly more than similar students in traditional public schools, according to a new report by Stanford’s Center for Research on Education Outcomes, or CREDO. The average gain was the equivalent of 40 more days of learning in math, and 28 more in reading.

Disadvantaged students — blacks, Latinos, English Learners, low-income and special-education students — gained the most. Whites did worse in urban charters than in traditional schools.

Performance varied, notes Sara Mead in U.S. News. Charter schools in Boston, the San Francisco Bay Area, the District of Columbia, Detroit and Newark produced very strong results for students. “Charter students in Boston ended up with over 200 days more learning” in math compared to similar students at district schools.

In 26 of the cities, charter students learned more than their traditional school peers in math, and in 23 they learned more than their peers in reading. But in 11 of the urban areas, charter school students learned less than their peers in math while in 10 of them charter school students learned less in reading.

Urban charters appear to be improving over time, researchers concluded.

Students do much better in their second year at a charter, and even better in the third and fourth year, CREDO found.

“In several cities where traditional districts perform below state averages – Boston, Detroit, Indianapolis, Memphis and Nashville – charters appear to be producing strong enough learning growth to close the gap for children who remain in them for several years,” writes Mead.

Chicago schools debut Latino studies

Kindergarteners will learn about the Mayan counting system.

Kindergarteners will learn about the Mayan counting system.

Chicago Public Schools will teach an interdisciplinary Latino and Latin American Studies curriculum to all K-10 students, Melissa Sanchez reports for Catalyst Chicago.

“Kindergartners can learn about the Mayan counting system while they’re learning numbers, and fifth-graders can learn about African influences on South American percussion during music class,” she writes.

“The history of Chicago cannot be written without celebrating the contributions of immigrants from Central America, South America and the Caribbean,” CPS CEO Barbara Byrd-Bennett said in a district news release.

More than 45 percent of CPS students are Latino.

On The White Rhino, a Chicago English teacher named Ray Salazar called the curriculum well-intentioned but over-simplified.

Chicago already is piloting an African and African American studies curriculum that was released last year.

White ethnic studies teacher faces protests

Community and church leaders in Fresno are protesting the hiring of a white teacher to teach three classes in African-American, Latino and Southeast Asian studies at a new middle school, reports the Fresno Bee.

Peter Beck has years of experience teaching “cultural studies” at another Fresno school and has led the Men’s Alliance, a leadership class for at-risk teens.

“We still are at these racial fault lines, and we want someone who will be able to think critically about those racial fault lines and how do we help heal,” said the Rev. Karen Crozier.

Beck is “highly intelligent,” said Rev. Paul McCoy of New Light for New Life Church of God. However, McCoy believes teachers who look like their students will be more sensitive  about topics related to race.

“We’re all faced today with so much dysfunction and violence from young people, and that violence is simply because they don’t know who they are, they don’t know where they come from,” McCoy said at a news event. “They don’t know the responsibility and accountability it takes to become a vital citizen in this country.”

Presumably, Fresno would have to hire three teachers  — unless a tri-ethnic teacher is available.

A nearby high school is 58 percent Latino, 18 percent black, 13 percent Asian-American and 9 percent white.

Separate and gifted?

Eliminate gifted tracks in New York City, argue Halley Potter of the Century Foundation and David Tipson of New York Appleseed in the New York Times Room for Debate blog.

Seventy percent of the city’s gifted and talented (G&T) kindergarteners are white and Asian, while 70 percent of students are black and Latino, they write.

“Segregation” harms the education of low-income students. they argue. “At the same time, affluent white and Asian students in the city’s separate G&T classrooms are also denied the cognitive and social benefits that socioeconomically and racially diverse classrooms offer.”

Gifted children won’t “be fine” in mixed-ability classes, responds Rick Hess.

. . . we’re putting much at risk when we simply hope that overburdened classroom teachers can provide the teaching and learning that gifted children need. Anyone who has watched a teacher labor to “differentiate” instruction in a classroom that encompasses both math prodigies and English language learners knows it’s unreasonable to expect most teachers to do this well.

Students do best in classrooms with students of similar ability, researcher Bruce Sacerdote writes. “We know from data, from theory and, most important, from decades of experience that ability grouping or tracking can have a big payoff. . . . High-ability students benefit the most from high-ability peers.

Reading, ‘riting and English immersion

After years of bilingual education, most Latino third graders in New Britain, Connecticut schools haven’t learned to read, reports John Tulenko in The Language War in New Britain on PBS tonight. Kelt Cooper, the district’s new superintendent, is switching to English immersion. “While initial results seem promising, opponents say students are being shortchanged,” reports Learning Matters.

Here’s the district’s explanation of the new English Language Development program.

Study: Teachers go soft on minority students’ work

After reading a poorly written essay, teachers offered comments and advice. Those who thought the writer was black or Latino provided more praise and less criticism, according to a Rutgers study published in the Journal of Educational Psychology (JEP), reports Science Daily.

(The study) involved 113 white middle school and high school teachers in two public school districts located in the New York/New Jersey/Connecticut tri-state area, one middle class and white, and the other more working class and racially mixed.

“Many minority students might not be getting input from instructors that stimulates intellectual growth and fosters achievement,” said Kent Harber, Rutgers-Newark psychology professor.

George W. Bush called it “the soft bigotry of low expectations.”

Graduation + transfer = new success rate

Community college success rates will rise, under a new definition that includes transfer students who go on to a four-year institution before earning an associate degree.

Nearly 80 percent of male black and Latino college students in California enroll in community college. Six years later, 80 percent have failed to complete a certificate or degree or transfer to a university. Women do somewhat better.

Libertad de la educacion

Libertad de la Educacion, a new Lexington Institute report, looks at “School Choice Solutions for Closing the Latino Achievement Gap.” Latino children are excelling in charter schools in Chicago and voucher schools in Milwaukee,   the report finds.

Lexington also recommends using virtual educational technology to revolutionize online and hybrid classrooms and providing scholarships for special-needs children.

Patricia Gándara of UCLA takes a different approach in The Latino Education Crisis: Rescuing the American Dream. Latinos have made almost no progress in college completion rates during the last three decades, Gándara writes.