Backlash: Diversity training boosts bias

Here’s a non-surprise: Mandatory diversity training leads to less diversity and more hostility, concludes a study published in the Harvard Business Review.

. . . five years after instituting required training for managers, companies saw no improvement in the proportion of white women, black men, and Hispanics in management, and the share of black women actually decreased by 9%, on average, while the ranks of Asian-American men and women shrank by 4% to 5%.

Trainers tell us that people often respond to compulsory courses with anger and resistance—and many participants actually report more animosity toward other groups afterward.

Voluntary training led to better results, researchers found.

Research from the University of Toronto reinforces our findings: In one study white subjects read a brochure critiquing prejudice toward blacks. When people felt pressure to agree with it, the reading strengthened their bias against blacks. When they felt the choice was theirs, the reading reduced bias.

Stressing the benefits of a multicultural workforce, rather than the risk of lawsuits, college recruitment aimed at women and minorities, mentoring new hires and creating in-house diversity efforts led to a more diverse managerial workforce over time. Bringing in outside consultants backfired.

I went through this sort of mandatory training in my newspaper days. One Power Point presentation featured purple hippos, because nobody employed by Knight-Ridder Newspapers was a purple hippo.

School administrators might benefit from a look at the research.

Know before you go

Colorado universities aren’t happy about a new web site,  launchmycareercolorado.org, which helps potential students estimate the return of investment on college based on their major, school and degree.

For example, a dental hygienist with a two-year degree can expect to earn considerably more than a sociologist with a four-year degree.

Dental hygienists with a certificate or two-year degree earn more than many non-technical college graduates.

Dental hygienists with a certificate or two-year degree earn more than many non-technical college graduates.

The site includes survey of graduates’ satisfaction with their jobs (often low) and with their lives (typically quite high).

A graph shows graduates’ earnings vs. a high school graduate with no college credential. Some college grads take many years to equal and then surpass the earnings of less-educated workers.

“There are many degrees that don’t have a return on investment, and you should know before you go,” said Mark Schneider president of College Measures, which helped launch the site.

How to succeed without a degree

High school graduates with “high credentials” — but no college — earn almost as much as four-year college graduates at the age of 26, concludes a Center for Public Education report. High-credentialed workers earn higher wages and are more likely to be working full-time than those with two-year degrees or “some college,” according to Path Least Taken III: Rigor and Focus in High School Pays Dividends in the Future.

In high school, they completed Algebra 2 and advanced science, earned a C-plus average or better and completed three or more related career-focused courses. After graduation, they earned a professional license or certificate in the same career field.

Employers seek alternatives to college degrees

“Depending on whom you ask, degrees are either increasing in value or about to disappear into the dustbin of history,” writes Ryan Craig, managing director of University Ventures, on EdSurge News. Employers are “demanding more degrees while simultaneously saying degrees don’t matter.”

A new report by The Brookings Institution shows that the bachelor’s degree premium remains as high as ever. Meanwhile, Goldman Sachs says the return on college is falling: “In 2010, students could expect to break even within eight years of finishing school. Since then, that has increased to nine years.”

One third of employers are asking for more higher education, according to a new survey from CareerBuilder. Some are demanding four-year degrees for jobs that used to be open to high school graduates or demanding master’s degrees for jobs that used to require a bachelor’s.

Others have found “degree bias” leads to bad hiring decisions.

. . . Google’s Senior VP of People Operations has gone on record saying that grades in degree programs are “worthless as a criteria for hiring.” As a result, Google also requires candidates to take assessments, which are much more predictive of success on the job.

Credential inflation and openness to alternative credentials are logical responses to employers’ dissatisfaction with college graduates’ hard skills and soft skills, such as reasoning, communication, complex problem solving, innovation and creativity, writes Craig.

Soon, a “plain vanilla bachelor’s degree” won’t be enough. “Newly minted bachelor’s degree grads are already competing in the job market with graduates of coding bootcamps like Galvanize,” he writes. “Soon they’ll be competing with graduates of Udacity Nanodegrees, Coursera Specializations and Lynda Learning Paths.”

A New York Times editorial argues that the government should help more people go to college, even though “the economy does not produce enough jobs that require college degrees.” The Times‘ solution is for the government to create “good jobs at good pay” — and raise the minimum wage.

Oddly, the editorial says graduates can’t find jobs as teachers, ignoring the debate about whether the teacher shortage is national or just local. There’s always been a surplus of would-be elementary teachers and strong demand for math, science, bilingual and special-ed teachers.

Dropouts need not apply in Silicon Valley

Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard. Steve Jobs dropped out of Reed. But don’t believe that high-tech companies care more about “the caliber of your code” than your college degree, writes Lauren Weber in the Wall Street Journal.

High-tech companies — especially those in Silicon Valley — are more likely to demand a college degree for software developers than other employers, according to a Burning Glass Technologies survey.

In 95 percent of tech-sector job ads that specify a credential, the employer wants a bachelor’s degree or higher.

“Some firms are experimenting with ‘blind hiring‘ processes—designed to judge job applicants purely based on work samples rather than resumes,” writes Weber. However, that’s the exception.

Via Eduwonk.

Study: Teachers bargain, students lose

Teachers’ collective bargaining rights correlate with lower employment and earnings for students later in adult life, concludes a study by Michael F. Lovenheim and Alexander Willén in Education Next.
They compared student outcomes in states that enacted a duty-to-bargain law to outcomes in states that did not change their collective-bargaining policies.

There was no effect on the amount of schooling students completed.

However, “students who spent all 12 years of grade school in a state with a duty-to-bargain law earned an average of $795 less per year and worked half an hour less per week as adults than students who were not exposed to collective-bargaining laws.” Those educated in duty-to-bargain states were less likely to be employed and those with jobs were more likely to work in low-skilled occupations.

Why? They’re not sure.

Perhaps collective bargaining has made it more difficult for school districts to dismiss ineffective teachers or to allocate teachers among schools. Or perhaps the political influence of teachers unions at the state level has interfered with efforts to improve school quality.

More than 60 percent of U.S. teachers work under a union contract, but some states, such as Wisconsin, Michigan,  Indiana and Tennessee, have moved to restrict teachers’ bargaining rights.

Profs: Few high school grads are ready for college

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Most high school graduates aren’t prepared for college or work, according to a survey of professors and employers by Achieve. Three-quarters of  graduates say their high school did not set high academic expectations.

Among faculty members who teach at four-year colleges, 88 percent reported at least some gaps in their students’ preparation, including 34 percent who reported large gaps in preparation. At two-year colleges, instructors felt 96 percent of students had some gaps (including 34 percent with large gaps), according to the Achieve poll results released July 22.

Employers, too, believe students leave high school without the skills needed for typical jobs at their companies (82 percent believe there are some gaps and 48 percent report large gaps in readiness), the Achieve survey showed.

More than three-quarters of college instructors were dissatisfied with students’ abilities in critical thinking, comprehension of complicated materials, work and study habits, writing, written communication, and problem-solving.

Sixty-one percent of employers “request or require new hires to get more training in math, reading or writing — nearly a 20 percentage point increase from what employers surveyed said 10 years ago,” reports Caralee Adams for Ed Week.

Employers used to do more on-the-job training. Now they require more years of schooling, expect workers to be ready to be productive, get disappointed and blame colleges.

Students need early counseling about the need to take challenging courses in high school, said survey respondents.

Does money matter?

“Increased school spending is linked to improved outcomes for students, and for low-income students in particular, argue Kirabo Jackson, Rucker Johnson and Claudia Persico in Boosting Educational Attainment and Adult Earnings

Previous research has shown no link between school spending and learning.

This study correlated spending increases with “large improvements in educational attainment, wages, and family income, and reductions in the annual incidence of adult poverty for children from low-income families.”  However, “how the money is spent matters,” the authors write in Education Next.

Ric Hanushek questions the analysis. School spending has increased significantly, he writes.

If a ten percent increase yields the results calculated by Jackson, Johnson, and Persico, shouldn’t we have found all gaps gone (and even reversed) by now due to the actual funding increases?  And, even with small effects on the non-poor, shouldn’t we have seen fairly dramatic improvements in overall educational and labor market outcomes? In reality, in the face of dramatic past increases in school funding, the gaps in attainment, high school graduation, and family poverty have remained significant, largely resisting any major improvement.

How money is spent matters a great deal more than the number of dollars available, Hanushek concludes.

The authors responded to the critique and Hanushek responded to the response.

In Academiaville, conform or flunk

Free speech? Not if you want to keep your job, writes Captain Capitalism, aka Aaron Clarey. “Employers act as a de facto fourth layer of government,” firing workers who make politically incorrect Facebook posts or (see Mozilla) back the wrong political cause.

Academia has become an “even more Orwellian fourth layer of government,” he writes. “Whereas the power of employers come from the fact you need a job, Academia’s power comes from the fact you need a degree to even get a job! (or so they say).”

“Professors, administrators, diversity officers and other worthless academic bureaucrats” enforce their “leftist, socialist, feminist, and anti-white anti-male ideology on the unfortunate and unsuspecting student-citizens of Academiaville.”

Students can attend conservative colleges, writes Clarey. Or they can bypass  a high-cost residential college and use certification, online courses and/or experience to qualify for a job.

How to pop the higher ed bubble

In Against Tulip Subsidies, Scott Alexander explains why the cost of college has inflated and how to pop the higher education bubble.

Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders, now a presidential candidate, has proposed universal free college tuition, he notes.

“If you can’t get any job better than ‘fast food worker’ without a college degree, and poor people can’t afford college degrees, that’s a pretty grim situation, and obviously unfair to the poor,” writes Alexander.

But Alexander has an alternative to subsidizing sky-high college prices.

Make “college degree” a protected characteristic, like race and religion and sexuality. If you’re not allowed to ask a job candidate whether they’re gay, you’re not allowed to ask them whether they’re a college graduate or not. You can give them all sorts of examinations, you can ask them their high school grades and SAT scores, you can ask their work history, but if you ask them if they have a degree then that’s illegal class-based discrimination and you’re going to jail.

Discuss.