Two math pathways in high school?

Most community college students don’t need Algebra II, but do need mastery of middle-school math, concludes What Does It Really Mean To Be College and Work Ready?, a recent report by the National Center on Education and the Economy. In his Top Performers blog, NCEE’s Marc Tucker explains why he supports Common Core Standards, which require Algebra II content, but doesn’t think Algebra II should be  graduation requirement.

Algebra II prepares students to take calculus, which fewer than five percent of U.S. workers will use on the job, writes Tucker. Why require it of everyone?

Some students, including many who will go on to STEM careers, should study Algebra II and beyond, including, if possible, calculus.  But many others, going on to other sorts of careers, should study the advanced mathematics that is appropriate for the kind of work they will do.  Homebuilders, surveyors and navigators might need geometry and trigonometry, whereas those going into industrial production or public health might want to pursue statistics and probability.  We argued not for lowering the standards but for creating pathways through advanced mathematics in high school that make sense in terms of the kind of mathematics that may be most useful to students when they leave school and enter the workforce.

Phil Daro, who headed the team that wrote the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for mathematics, also co-chaired the NCEE study’s math panel. Daro writes that the Common Core math standards include “college ready” and STEM goals. The lower “college ready” standards are not as rigorous as a traditional Algebra II course, though they are “more demanding than the NCEE study found was necessary for success” in community college.

 In writing the CCSS, we were charged with articulating one set of standards for all students that would be sufficient preparation for 4-year college programs.  . . . we could not customize different standards for different students with different destinations.  The principle behind this is social justice, but it has a cost.  One could argue that it would be better to have the common standards end earlier, and specialized standards start sooner.

Indeed, my own view is that there should be two mathematics pathways to college readiness that split after grade 9: one for students with STEM ambitions and one for students with other ambitions.

To avoid “social justice risks associated with different pathways,” Daro suggests making both pathways qualify for college admission without remediation.

By 10th grade, students would have to decide whether to take the easier non-STEM path or tackle college-prep math courses that keep the door open to a career in engineering, math and hard sciences.

Now, many students wander through years of middle-school and college-prep math without understanding what they’re doing. If they’re assigned to remedial math in college, the odds are they won’t earn a degree or a job credential. Is that social justice?

NCEE: Only 5% need calculus

Only 5 percent of students will use calculus in college or the workplace, concludes a new report on college and career readiness by the National Center on Education and the Economy. Most community college students could succeed in college courses if they’ve mastered “middle school mathematics, especially arithmetic, ratio, proportion, expressions and simple equations.” Many have not.

The report calls for providing an alternative track — less algebra, more statistics — for high school students who aren’t aiming at university STEM degrees.

In a few years, high school diplomas in North Carolina will show whether a graduate is prepared for a four-year university, a community college and/or a career.

Honors Track

In Honors Track, fiction in the new Atlantic, ambitious students form a cheating ring.

WE WERE SEDULOUS. We were driven. Our vocabularies were formidable and constantly expanding. We knew the chemical elements by number and properties, the names and dates of battles in the world’s greatest wars.

We arrived at school early and put in twelve-hour days. Exhaustion was routine. Most of us repelled it with Pepsi or Mountain Dew. Others took a more holistic approach. Neil Casey did a series of deep-breathing exercises; May Wang sipped from a thermos of ginseng tea. Dale Gilman, the vice principal’s son, whom none of the rest of us could stand, rolled his ankles and wrists around while he sat through each class. “It really gets the blood flowing,” he said in his high-pitched voice, even though we never asked him to explain.

. . .  The pamphlets we took home from the Guidance Office showed photographs of trees in a perpetual state of October, and students’ faces laughing under jaunty knit caps.

I liked the story — but it made no sense to have the top students taking “honors calculus” in their junior year.  They’d take AP Calculus as seniors.

Discipline stats: What’s fair?

Black students are suspended, expelled and arrested at higher rates than whites, concludes a new report by the U.S. Education Department’s Office of Civil Rights. ”The everyday educational experience for many students of color violates the principle of equity at the heart of the American promise,” Education Secretary Arne Duncan said.

What About the Kids Who Behave? asks Jason Riley in the Wall Street Journal. Though Duncan said the discipline statistics don’t prove discrimination, inevitably schools will be pressured to ease up on black kids who act up. That will be hard on their classmates, most of whom will be “students of color,” and their teachers.

The Obama administration’s sympathies are with the knuckleheads who are disrupting class, not with the kids who are trying to get an education. But is racial parity in disciplinary outcomes more important than school safety?

The report also found that high-minority high schools are half as likely to teach calculus as low-minority schools. That probably reflects fewer students who are prepared to take college-level math.

In addition, teachers in high-minority schools have less experience and therefore earn less. If these schools have more first- and second-year teachers — which I’d bet they do — that’s a real problem.

Boys dominate AP physics, computer science

Most STEM fields are likely to remain predominantly male. Boys take more AP physics and computer science exams, while girls now dominate AP biology (59 percent), notes Curriculum Matters, who’s been reading the AP Report to the Nation. While Calculus AB exam-takers are evenly split, 59 percent of those who tackle the more advanced Calculus BC are male.

Males make up 58 percent of AP music theory exam-takers, 74 to 77 percent in physics and 80 to 86 percent in computer science.

Gender differences were minor for Chemistry, European History, Latin, Statistics and U.S. Government and Politics.

In The Big Bang Theory, three males are physicists (theoretical, experimental and astro) and one is an engineer, while the female scientists are biologists.

 

Who needs calculus?

Calculus is the wrong goal for 90 percent of students, argued Harvey Mudd Professor Arthur T. Benjamin at the Ciudad de las Ideas in Puebla, Mexico.

“For the last 200 years, the mathematics that we’ve learned starts with arithmetic and algebra, and everything we do after that is taking us toward one subject, calculus. I think that is the wrong mathematical goal for 90 percent of our students,” he says. “We’re now living in an age of information and data, and the mathematics that will be most relevant to our daily lives is probability and statistics.” Only some professions require calculus. Everyone reads—and many misunderstand—media reports about health, science, and the environment that contain statistics. Better literacy in probability and stats would benefit everyone.

Most students don’t make it to calculus — or statistics. I didn’t. As a journalist — a notoriously innumerate trade — I frequently had to struggle with statistics to understand reports. I found my arithmetic skills very useful.

The Carnegie Foundation‘s redesign of community college math curricula stresses statistics and quantitative reasoning for students who aren’t headed for STEM careers.

I wonder how high school math would change if students could choose between a STEM-prep or math-for-citizenship track. Would we let students opt out of the calculus track in ninth or tenth grade? How about the kids who keep flunking algebra?

 

Generation Cupcake goes to college

“We should be doing everything we can to put a college education within reach for every American,” President Barack Obama told Denver college students last week. “College isn’t just one of the best investments you can make in your future. It’s one of the best investments America can make in our future.”

College is a good investment only if students get high-tech degrees, responds Michael Graham in the Boston Herald. The “Everybody gets a cupcake” crowd doesn’t get it, he snarks.

In 2009, American colleges handed out more business degrees than engineering, computer and biology degrees combined. We graduated about the same number of engineers as we did “Visual And Performance Arts” grads.

. . . What the crybabies of Generation Cupcake want — a good paying, white-collar job right out of college — is available . . .  if you’re willing to do the hard work of earning a valuable degree. But because these little snowflakes can’t do calculus, they end up burying themselves under 50K in college debt for a degree in Womyn’s Studies.

Half of current college kids are “mediocre students” who will earn “meaningless degrees” and “wind up working as the assistant manager at a TGI Fridays.”

Who ends up getting screwed? The rest of the students who actually belong in college. Because demand is artificially high, so are college costs — up 8.3 percent in just the past year at public colleges.

And because there are so many more degree holders, each degree is worth less.

Actually, there are very few Womyn’s Studies majors and the average college debt per bachelor’s degree remains under $30,000, though estimates keep rising. Business is a very popular major because students think it will get them that good white-collar job. Mediocre students in math-lite, writing-lite business majors will be lucky to make assistant manager at TGI Fridays.

Update: STEM graduates often take jobs in business, finance, consulting and health care, where the pay is considerably higher for people with quantitative skills, according to the Wall Street Journal‘s Generation Jobless series.

Escalante delivered, but system didn't

Jaime Escalante, who died this week, showed it’s possible to teach advanced math to poor inner-city kids. It should be possible to help great teachers “reach a mass audience,” writes Andrew J. Coulson of the Cato Institute.

At the peak of its success, Garfield produced more students who passed Advanced Placement calculus than Beverly Hills High.

In any other field, his methods would have been widely copied. Instead, Escalante’s success was resented. And while the teachers union contract limited class sizes to 35, Escalante could not bring himself to turn students away, packing 50 or more into a room and still helping them to excel. This weakened the union’s bargaining position, so it complained.

After years building up Garfield High’s math department, Escalante was stripped of the chairmanship. He left the next year, followed by the math teachers he’d recruited and trained.

The best tribute America can offer Jaime Escalante is to understand why our education system destroyed rather than amplified his success — and then fix it.

By contrast, Asian tutoring companies let star teachers reach thousands of students through web broadcasting, Coulson writes. Teachers share the profits.

Jay Mathews’ obit is here. He wrote Escalante: The Best Teacher in America in 1989.

Jaime Escalante dies

Jaime Escalante, the “Stand and Deliver” calculus teacher, died March 30 of cancer at the age of 79. A Bolivian immigrant, Escalante began teaching calculus at Garfield High in 1978: Most of his students came from low-income Mexican families. By 1987, Garfield students took more AP calculus exams than all but four high schools, public or private, in the country.  People started to think that low-income, minority kids could learn calculus, if properly taught.

Often in conflict with other teachers and administrators, Escalante left Garfield High in 1991 to teach at a Sacramento High School, Reason reports. He’d created a math enrichment program to get students from basic algebra to calculus. The other math enrichment teachers left too. Garfield’s calculus program collapsed.

Crazy for calculus

In a low-performing, high-aspiring San Diego high school with Mexican, Somali and Asian immigrants, advanced calculus is the hot class everyone wants to take and the biggest club is an honors math fraternity. Jonathan Winn teaches at Crawford Champs High, a Gates-funded school within a school. From Voice of San Diego:

Picture Jim Carrey with a mathematics degree. Winn dons a furry hat and beats a drum to remind students of the steps in a problem. He shouts theatrically and chants questions, then shuts off the audience lights to talk about “finding the inner you.” They talk openly about masculinity and otherness in the dim theater.

“If there’s one thing I want to impart to you this year, it is that there’s an infinite amount of power inside you,” Winn declares. “This has been proven. What happens when you split an atom?”

“Nuclear bombs,” one girl answers.

“So are you saying we’re explosive?” someone jokes.

“Yes!” Winn is thrilled. “You can use this explosiveness for good or evil, for positive or negative.”

The 70-student class is structured like a college lecture class. It is open to all students who want to try.

Showing students how to separate the inner and outer parts of a complex function, Winn tells them not to let people classify them based on what’s outside.

“So in mathematics there’s also outside and inside.” He walks them through a complicated function that has two layers, one acting on the other. The internal part is called the u. “What we’re going to do today is take them apart and decide — who’s on the inside? What’s on the inside?”

. . . “It’s you! It’s u! We found u! You found u!” Winn shouts. The teens giggle. “You can’t solve a problem until you find yourself.”

“It’s hard not to get excited if he’s that excited,” Liban Dini, a Somali immigrant told reporter Emily Alpert. “Other people, they don’t think you can handle it. He says, ‘I know you can pass the test.’” He paused. “I feel like he’s just talking to me sometimes. Sometimes you feel like he’s just looking at you. The inner you.”

A colleague, Carl Munn, started the math trend at Crawford Champs by teaching fewer math topics more intensely and relating math to students’ lives. That created students who had a shot at passing AP calculus.

Winn spends up to six hours with students after school.

He and his students jointly pledge to bring “INTENSITY and DESIRE” to class, starting the year with a calculus banquet and a “circle of blessings” from parents. . . . Every student signs a contract for the class, promising to review for the exam at school on a few Saturdays.

Dini remembers being nudged to take precalculus. “I said, ‘Is it going to be hard?’” Dini recalls. “And he said, ‘Yes, of course it’s hard.’ But he encouraged me to do that. And I took that step.”

This is the first year Crawford has offered AP Calculus. It will be interesting to see how many students pass the exam to earn college credit.

Via Stemology.