Union: Only nurses can help with insulin

Only nurses should be allowed to help diabetic children inject insulin argues a lawsuit by the nurses’ union and the state teachers’ union. There’s only one nurse for every 2,200 students in California public schools. Currently, any school staffer can assist a diabetic student.

“My experience tells me (the students) really do better when you have a professional nurse working with them,” said Melinda Landau, a nurse and health manager for the San Jose Unified School District.

. . . Parents and a host of groups backing them — notably the American Diabetes Association — argue that school employees who volunteer to provide the shots can safely aid diabetic students, just as parents learn to care for their children at home.

“We all had to learn how to do it, and none of us are licensed medical professionals,” said Tamar Sofer-Geri, a Los Altos woman whose diabetic 12-year-old daughter, Tia, is now able to monitor her blood sugar and inject herself.

I’d bet Tia has been monitoring her blood sugar and injecting herself for years now.

In some schools, students need a doctor’s note to carry sunscreen, a dermatologist Ana Duarte tells Allure.    “The state of Washington is the only state that banned sunscreen in school, but lots have rules because it’s over-the-counter and there is a possible—but quite rare—risk of being allergic. There’s also the question of who will apply it—a nurse, a teacher?”

What about a child?

About Joanne


  1. Lori Rice says:

    There are some crazy rules that protect only the few, like that sunscreen rule, but the bottom line is that all schools need full time nurses. The value of the nurse goes beyond Bandaids. Nurses are educators for both teachers and students. Nurses also give students and employees a sense of security knowing they are there for them. Seeing nurses as less valuable than teachers on campus is a crime.

  2. BadaBing says:

    How about a note from home to eat in the cafeteria? I do believe that eating in the cafeteria is 10 times more dangerous than shooting up insulin.

  3. I won’t opine on whether schools need a nurse – mine didn’t have them growing up, but I can see advantages. I do, however, have a problem with the idea that kids with chronic illnesses can’t manage them themselves. I had childhood epilepsy and took medicine on a schedule. Although the teachers (and my friends) were aware of the situation, my mom thought it ridiculous that I would need to go to the clinic to be handed a pill that I took by myself at home. When I was in elementary school, she packed it in a little tupperware container in my lunch. By the time I was in middle school, I took the weekly pill box with me and took them as appropriate depending on whether I went home at the end of the day or had a practice after school. While I don’t think that teachers should be forced to learn to give the shots, those who volunteer (or already know how, due to treating somebody in their own family) should be able to. It’s not as if a nurse comes to the house to test/give shots several times/day.

    • Clearly you haven’t seen kids steal each others’ meds to take recreationally or to sell. Happens pretty often. (And yes, kids would be dumb enough to give some random epilepsy pill a whirl to see what it does.) That’s why we need kids to keep their meds in the clinic.

      • Classics Mom says:

        Yes, but in the case of asthma inhalers and epi-pens and benadryl, it is critical that the medicine stay with the child at all times so that treatment not be delayed. For younger children, the school should ensure that a responsible adult have such medicine unlocked in the same room/area as the child at all times with an action plan. When such children are older they should be allowed to carry life-saving medications on their person at all times.

        • Kids switch rooms all the time, and it’s irresponsible to leave medicine out unsecured where other kids can get it. Aside from the danger of some kid taking it who shouldn’t, God forbid a kid should need his inhaler and find it missing because it was in an unsecured area in a classroom. That’s just a ridiculous suggestion.

          And to everyone insisting that all kids can manage their own inhalers, epi pens, etc…. You really have not been around a lot of elementary school aged children, have you? Maybe your precious darling can do it, or you could do it yourself at that age because you were just that precocious, but most can’t. And if you’ve ever seen a kid in the midst of an allergic reaction, gasping and choking, you’d see how absurd it is to think that the kid wouldn’t need some adult help finding that epi pen ( especially if its in some unlocked area with everyone else’s meds… Good lord).

          And finally, do you have any idea how fast the teacher and school get sued when there are mishaps with the kid self-administering medication?

          I’m all for self advocacy, and for saving money, but you all are completely in dreamland about the safety issues here.

          • You know what works really well, and addresses all of these issues? Having a full time school nurse with a safety plan that allows her to deliver emergency meds to kids within the required time window. Which used to be standard procedure in schools, with excellent results.

      • Anna, you’re right, I never did. I kept the medicine on my person or locked in my locker. I was not the only kid with epilepsy at my school who did this. The only people who knew I kept the medicine on my were close friends, who knew that I needed it. If somebody had decided to give my pill a whirl, they would have found that they got really tired. Had I been at a school where I would have been assaulted to get the pill out of my purse, the school has bigger problems than my medicine. It’s hard for parents to try to instill in kids that they need to be responsible for their medicine, keep an eye on the clock, and remember to take it…except at school. I would imagine that most of the kids I went to school with had no idea that I even took a pill – I was pretty discreet.

        • I’m sure you were very responsible. I’m also sure that if, through some tragic accident, your pill found its way into another kids mouth and he ended up at the doctor complaining of drowsiness, that kids parents would sue the pants off the school and teacher. And they would probably win.

          • Legally, you’re probably right. Things probably are crazy enough that a parent could say ‘My 12 year old stole an unknown medication from somebody’s bag/desk, ingested it, got sick, and it’s your fault for needing the medicine’. It seems really unfortunate that parents who have taught their kids to be responsible have to live with whatever rules it takes to keep kids who are actually breaking the law from harming themselves. Kids who have a chronic condition feel like a spectacle anyway without having to go wait in line at the nurse’s office every day, and it’s a shame that they can’t get that bit of confidence that knowing that they can manage their condition gives them.

      • Classics Mom says:

        My son’s teachers kept his epi-pen supplies and action plan in a fanny belt that I provided. Now that he is a 5th grade middle school student he is allowed to carry them in his person in a fanny pack. From a medical point of view, locking up emergency meds is the worst possible idea since every minute counts in an emergency.

  4. If my kid needs help with his insulin shot, I want a school nurse to do it. I don’t want his 3rd grade teacher squeezing it in between classes, after having received some lame 2 hour training about it.

    • But California’s broke. Where’s the money for more nurses going to come from?
      In a given school, only one or two kids are going to need insulin— if you have a nurse travel between schools to save money, you run the risk of delaying kids’ meds b/c of traffic, running late, etc.

      But to put a nurse in every school, full time, you’d need to cut another staff member. So, who are you going to cut?

      Not to mention the fact that there’s not really a big glut of nurses right now, and it’s likely to get worse as boomers retire and age. Where are all these new nurses coming from? Are we going to lower the requirements to be a school nurse? If so, how will that be better than the existing situation?

      • I’m sure there are tens of thousands of nurses in the Phillipines who would be happy to apply for H1-B visas to hold the sinecures at these schools.

        • Why go to the Phillipines? Every mother who is a nurse around here wants to be a school nurse. Pay and bennies are significantly higher than at all but the very best hospitals (which they would have to commute 2 hrs to). Locally a school nurse makes more than a 4 yr degreed Physician’s Assistant, and that’s only looking at salary, not the caddy bennies. There is no shortage of nurses to push wheelchairs around etc in the school bldgs.

          • American nursing grads cost too much because they have student loans to pay off.  Can’t let them do that, it’ll get them out of debt peonage!

  5. How would this not violate the ADA? A person with diabetes needs his insulin, syringes, and test kit with him so can use them when he needs it, not when a nurse says so. Taking the equipment from him is a crime. Asthmatics need their inhalers, and diabetics need their syringes. Why does anyone think a child cannot take proper care of them?

    • Yes, the child needs access to life saving medicine on demand. No, the child doesn’t need to have them physically on his person in order to have that access be possible. This is the problem. We can’t have kids keep it on their person due to multiple safety issues, but we won’t pay for a clinic to allow the kid free access to his own meds.

      The real ADA issue isn’t the diabetics. It’s all the other kids with special needs that they physically or cognitively cannot do for themselves, like catheterization or severe wound care. Those kids need a nurse in order to be able to attend school, and they are increasingly being kept out of their neighborhood school due to the lack of a nurse. Those lawsuits are coming and they will be ugly.

      • Classics Mom says:

        Obviously, you are not a medical person at all. I taught critical and emergency care and worked in the same areas for decades. All teachers and support personnel should be trained to recognize an emergency and how to respond by taking basic life support and first aid classes on a regular basis. They should also be trained in medical action plans for a student as well. Sure I think it is great to have a nurse in the school but if life saving treatment is delayed for 5 or 10 minutes in order to get the nurse and the meds, then a kid could very well lose their life!!! Your suggestions go against medical advice and are irresponsible.

        • Yes 5 or 10 minutes would be irresponsible. Every school I’ve been in has a plan for the kid to get the meds delivered within seconds. I am not sure how to respond to you because what you are describing is not reality, nor is it the law, but you are saying otherwise… So either I’ve been in a lot of irresponsible schools in my career, and the law is medically unsound… Or you don’t really know what you are talking about. I want to give you the benefit of the doubt though because you seem so certain. I don’t know what to say.

          • Classics Mom says:

            Actually I do think a lot of schools are totally irresponsible from a medical point of view when it comes to access to emergency meds since they often choose to lock them up in an office. You say they could get the meds in seconds and I say hogwash based on my experience working in hospitals. I can also tell you of several cases where schools failed to give meds in a timely fashion and the child died. My child’s doctors ordered the meds to be in the same room/area as my child at all times with someone capable of administering the same medication at all times since this is the prudent thing to do medically. The doctors stressed every minute counts when it comes to treating anaphylaxis. Also, my child attended public, charter and private schools and they all complied with these doctors’ orders and were able to do so without endangering the safety of other students.

          • Stacy in NJ says:

            Classic Mom, My son had the same little boy in both his private pre-school class and in his public kindergarten class who had sever allergies. In both schools he carried a tiny fanny pack with his epi-pen inside. The preschool had no nurse but willingly cooperated with instructions. His elementary school had nurse but, again, he carried his fanny pack with him at all time. So, your experience might be the norm. Its a horrible world when only “experts” or TOP MEN are allowed to help out those in need. This is how you turn people into powerless, helpless drones – not allow individuals to help others and find sensible solutions to problems.

  6. Mike in Texas says:

    It sure is funny how many Republicans are pushing to get nurses out of schools, and here is Joanne blaming the unions for wanting a nurse in every school.

    I wonder what page of ALEC/Gates Foundation/Broad Foundation she found this on?

    • I don’t think most folks object to full time nurses when things are financially flush, but they becomes harder to justify when districts are cutting personnel across the board and only a handful of kids need the kind of care that only nurses can provide. You don’t need an RN to keep medicine secure or to help administer insulin or epi-pens. I find Anna’s sudden zealous advocacy here a little odd. Anyone else?

      • lightly seasoned says:

        No, because school nurses do a lot more than that. Ours does screenings, arranges healthcare for kids with parents who can’t/won’t, makes sure all vaccinations are up-to-date, manages workman’s comp for the building, provides first aid in medical emergencies, coordinates allergy protocol (we have a couple kids with severe allergies to airborne latex, so she was the one who figured out what chalk we could use, for example), and probably dozens of things I’m not aware of. It is a LOT more than epi-pens or adderal (and yes, she keeps that in the office because it is a popular drug to sell). School nurses are also often the first line of care for mentally ill students. Hmm. What else? Oh, she does the tests for kids who are high/drunk in school so they can be arrested. So, I guess you could think they’re disposable and it is just prissy of us teachers to not want to give our students SHOTS for God’s sake and hand out a few pills, but they really do quite a bit.

        • At the risk of being stoned, I’ll enter the fray. I hear that one of the things school nurses may do is escort or refer a young girl to an abortion clinic without parental knowledge. In that light, much of this hyperventilating dialogue is somewhat absurd (an elective surgical procedure with potential physical and psychological complications is fine, but watch out for that sunscreen!), and yes, Mike, it does lead some parents to believe that the school nurse is their adversary, not their ally.

          • Mike in Texas says:

            Never heard of such a thing.

          • Also, arranging ‘health care’ for students whose parents can’t or won’t sounds like mission creep. That should fall under Medicaid or DCFS, not the school nurse. And, under Obamacare, EVERYONE will have health care, right? So the nurses are obsolete.

            Also, in most districts, you don;t need a workman’s comp person in every building. And seriously–only the nurse is qualified to google up Latex-free chalk?

            Vaccination policing should come at registration or from the health department.

            It seems like the school nurse is simply serving a lot of quasi-governmental functions that really don’t belong in the school. Is it worth cutting the number of teachers to get/keep a nurse?

          • Mike— handing out contraception and procuring abortions w/o parental consent or notification happens all the time in some states.

            Probably not Texas, but that’s because Texas still has SOME respect for parental rights.

          • New York, Maine, Florida, California, Washington….. from just a quick google search for the term “school nurse” and either “birth control” or “abortion.”

            So yes. Many parents don’t see the nurse as an ally in their child’s care.

          • Mike, I well believe you’ve never heard of such a thing. The question is, when you discover it to be true, will you think to yourself, “That’s outrageous!” or will you think, “Meh”?



            Cal. Health & Safety Code § 123450 (2009)

            Performance of abortion on unemancipated minor; Consent; Petition without consent of parent or guardian; Appeal

          • lightly seasoned says:

            If it is on the internet, it must be true.

        • CarolineSF says:

          Why can’t student volunteers do the insulin shots?

        • Let’s see. Screenings, arranging health care for kids with parents who can’t/won’t, making sure all vaccinations are up to date, managing workman’s comp for the building and coordinating allergy protocols are all clerical functions which can be fobbed off on a decent information management system.

          In fact, a school nurse’s job profile would look very much like a school cop’s job profile – 99%, or 99.9%, of their time doing tasks that could be just as easily done by someone without their specialist training because the situations for which that specialist training prepares them so rarely occurs in a school.

          So having a nurse stationed in every elementary school isn’t necessary, or even a particularly good idea, but putting on a full court press to make it seems so does fall in line with the desire to avoid responsibility that’s inherent to the public education system.

      • I’m zealous because I’m a teacher and a parent and I’m frustrated. I want kids to have proper medical care. I’m upset that you all are repeating things that are crazy and untrue as an excuse not to provide that care. But point taken, I will take it down a notch.

  7. The school nurse here also hands out clothing and supplies to the poor, is the daily attendance clerk, and performs physical exams for those students whose parents can’t/won’t take their children to a doctor. They also collect data and participate in public health decisions — one big one here was the janitorial union deciding that they could not clean the cafeteria tables in between groups. With full inclusion, that means potential infections as there is saliva etc dripped on the tables. The nurses collected data and showed the janitorial union the necessity.

    My opinion, with full inclusion and huge school sizes, I’d keep the nurse and I’d hire a clerk to do attendance. Nurses in big schools are busy.

    • But not every school is a big school and not every nurse is a busy nurse, so why not decide on a case-by-case basis instead of imposing a statewide mandate?

      Maybe, at Lightly’s school, it’s worth it to have a nurse and one fewer English teacher. But maybe there are also schools somewhere in the state of California where a mandatory nurse would be an unecessary and unwelcome fiscal burden. California’s an awfully big state, after all.

      And perhaps, in some districts, schools are far enough apart that mandating an RN to give medication and hiring a traveling nurse would mean kids couldn’t get their meds on time. Doesn’t California have large rural districts as well as heavily populated urban ones? I seem to recall that large swaths of the state exist outside the coastal megalopolis….

  8. lightly seasoned says:

    I’m sure you know best, Deidre. I work in a building with 1400 teenagers and over 100 staff, but I have absolutely no idea what I’m talking about. You’re absolutely right.

    • Deidre didn’t say you have no idea what you’re talking about; she just implied, and I will say directly, that you have tunnel vision.

      • lightly seasoned says:

        And your vision is?

        • See what Cranberry has eloquently written. That’ll work for me. You have some valid concerns, but I think you err on the side of too much caution, which ironically will also create the lawsuits you see coming.

  9. As an austerity measure, cutting out school nurses is about as lame as it gets. At a ratio of one nurse per 300 students, the cost of a $50,000 per year RN is about $170 per student per year. If you’re already spending $10,000 per year on that student, then that’s less than two percent going to the student’s health care. As partial insurance against lawsuits, I would think that a school nurse would be a no-brainer.

    Just cut some lame administrative position if there’s no other way to afford the cost.

    • $50k a year for a nurse is starting salary here. Cost to the district includes total compensation. Nurses who are ten years in here make about $75k in salary for a 180 day school year, app 37 hr week. They can retire with a pretty high fraction of their compensation, at a young age, as well as pick up additional work in the community to get full time hours on all those four day school weeks and during the summers.

    • GEORGE LARSON says:

      Can you name a school district that was sued for financial damages for not having a nurse at a school?

  10. Mike in texas says:


    I DID google it and found this.


    The Department of Education is giving morning-after pills and other birth-control drugs to students at 13 high schools,

    Parents at the 14 schools were sent letters informing them about CATCH. Parents may bar their kids from getting pregnancy tests or contraceptives if they sign and return an opt-out statement

    Also, keep in mind I work at an elementary school. Our nurse spends a great deal of time everyday preparing medicines and dispensing them, as well as treating sick children and the injured.

    I would absolutely refuse to administer insulin, or any other medication, to a child. That’s a job for trained professionals. Cutting nurses from schools is just another attempt to get rid of the professionals in the building who smell the crap the “reformers” want to bring in and will do something about it.

    • Ah, the parent opt-out gambit. I tell my students to always read the last couple of paragraphs in a news story. From your hyperlink:

      But some school insiders dislike the CATCH program’s lack of parental involvement and fear medical complications.

      “We can’t give out a Tylenol without a doctor’ s order,” said a school staffer. “Why should we give out hormonal preparations with far more serious possible side effects, such as blood clots and hypertension?”

  11. Stacy in NJ says:

    Most of you posting completely miss the point. Whether or not a nurse is necessary is beside the point. Public education is dysfunctional because of the rent seeking (unions), ridiculous demands of parents (lawsuits), featherbedding of administrations. All these things lead to an environment where sensible people can’t come up with individual sensible solutions. Everything is subjected to the protocols of the idiots.

    • Ok classics mom, you win. Your experience working in a hospital clearly qualifies you as the expert on what happens in public schools, and those of us who work in schools and tell you what we actually see there must be spouting hogwash. Since my actual lived experience doesn’t line up with how you think things probably work in schools, clearly I am the wrong one and you are absolutely correct.

      I give up.

      This is what’s wrong with education policy. Everyone thinks they are an expert based on their tangentially related experiences. They don’t listen to those of us who actually work on the ground in the schools, and so they pass regulations that hurt kids.

      • Or maybe all schools aren’t exactly the same, and just because something is good for YOUR SCHOOL doesn’t make it a good statewide policy…… You’re using anecdotal data too. You’re just upset that there’s more than one kind of anecdote.

      • lightly seasoned says:

        No, we have tunnel vision and those from outside know far better than we do. We’re good enough, apparently, to act as un-LPNs, throw ourselves in front of bullets, and protect children during a tornado (oh, and teach, but that’s not really a profession), but other than that we’re morons not really worth paying.

        Thank goodness all schools aren’t exactly the same. My community supports us.

        • Classics Mom says:

          I am only saying that keeping emergency meds locked up in an office somewhere goes against medical advice for emergency meds. This I do know.

      • When you’re through indulging yourself with a large helping of self-pity I’ll explaining things to you.
        Done yet? OK.
        You see, Anna everyone *is* an expert thanks to the word “public” in public education. You clearly find the fact that everyone who’s of an age is entitled to officially register their opinion, and have that opinion respected, galling but that’s one of the shortcomings of democracy. You might want to consider trying to come to terms with that fact because a public education system of the teachers, by the teachers and for the teachers just isn’t in the cards.

        Should you ever manage to discard your preconception that a dictatorship of the pedagogiate is really what’s necessary to represent the deep and abiding compassion you feel for all the little tykes, not to mention looking pretty good as far as your more distinctly selfish interests are concerned, you’ll notice that the only people who currently, or ever, give a damn whether those tykes get an education and are safe, are relegated very much to the sidelines of education. In case I’m being too oblique I’m referring to parents.

        If mommies and daddies are in charge of the fate of a school then their concerns of, in order, making sure their child is safe and making sure their child gets a decent education, determine the likelihood of the continued existence of the school. Since nothing so focuses the mind as the imminent possibility of extinction all the factors that might go towards avoiding that extinction take on a great deal of importance.

        In the district system nurses, or no nurses, are just another political fight to be waged and another budget item to be wrangled over with other, competing budget items.

      • Classics Mom says:

        Anna, I am not an expert in regards to schools. I am pretty knowledgeable about emergency care though and experienced 3 different schools who were able to safely comply with my child’s doctors orders of keeping his medications wherever he was. These schools also ensured that every staff member was trained on how to give epi-pens and benadryl as well as follow the action. I get your concerns about other kids possibly taking medications but the orders my child’s doctors gave were able to be followed out without any problem.

        • Classics Mom says:

          I forgot to add that their are locks for emergency bags and what not that can be ripped off without the need for a key if you are really worried about security. Hospitals use them all the time on emergency carts.

  12. OK. Here’s a question. Suppose you mandate that only school nurses can give epinepherin shots, insulin shots, and inhalers.

    And suppose you then find the money to put a nurse in every school.

    What happens when Johnny in room B is having an asthma attack and Billy in Room Z is having an anaphylactic reaction?

    • Classics Mom says:

      Deidre, this is still a bad idea since lay people can be safely trained to render first aid which includes epi-pens and what not with proper training. I am a nurse and think having nurses is great, but all staff members should be trained in my opinion since locating the nurse may take too long in an emergency which can mean the difference between life and death. Secondly, as much as I would like to see a nurse in every school some districts such as Chicago have billion dollar deficits! And many other districts across the country are run on smoke and mirrors due to unsustainable benefits and waste and cronyism. Of course, I think the waste and cronyism should be cut and that benefits should be modeled after the federal government benefits which are infinitely more sustainable when compared to many districts’ benefits before cutting nurses.

      • Mike in Texas says:

        “Secondly, as much as I would like to see a nurse in every school some districts such as Chicago have billion dollar deficits”

        Not an excuse at all, since Rahm seems to have $55 million laying around to pay for a gymasium, excuse me, sports arena

  13. I’m not sure how this discussion got turned around. In the beginning, the premise was that students and teachers who VOLUNTEERED for training could, with parental permission, help students. By the end of the comment thread, it is about teachers being forced to become nurses. As somebody who really doesn’t do well with needles, I can’t imagine forcing anybody to train as a nurse. For a school with few/no chronically ill students, or students who can manage their own illness, however, I can see how requiring them to carry their medicine on their person (the fanny pack idea was good) and allowing non-nurse medication would be a good (and inexpensive) option.

    • It got turned around b/c the teachers got all hysterical and declared that a school without a nurse is a form of educator abuse.

      Growing up, I went to schools w/ and w/o nurses. In schools w/o a nurse, the secretary took charge of medications, bandages, checking fevers and calling parents.

      I found that the medical service in schools with a nurse wasn’t more reliable than those without. The nurse was often out of her office, visiting classes, or on break. In which case…. the secretary took over.

      In the small rural school with 25 kids in a grade, we shared an art teacher, music teacher, and gym teacher with others schools in a big district. A nurse would have been a total waste there.

    • Classics Mom says:

      Lulu, actually epi-pens and insulin syringes today are designed to be fool proof and you cannot even see the needle.

  14. Also, are insulin shots really SHOTS these days? Most of the Type I diabetic kids I’ve encountered have pumps– you inject the meds into the line, not into their arms…

  15. Is California not full inclusion? Here in NY, we are full inclusion. That means we have nurses on contract for those students that need them 1:1 and are mainstreamed.

  16. cranberry says:

    The American Diabetes Association has a very good pdf on supporting Diabetic students in the school environment: http://www.diabetes.org/assets/pdfs/schools/thriveschool_jameson.pdf.

    All the schools my children have attended have nurses on staff. I am not certain how California schools meet the “least restrictive environment” for students with health disabilities without school nurses.

    Even so, requiring only nurses to dispense insulin is ridiculous. It runs counter to the advice from the American Diabetes Association. So many students are diabetic, it would make no sense for all the students in a school to visit the nurse every time they needed insulin or, perhaps, to check their blood glucose level. Trained adult volunteers are needed.

    Medication students might need quickly to prevent death cannot be locked up under the care of one person. Our allergic children have permission to carry epiPens and inhalers with them, but teachers have epiPens in the classroom as well. All staff have been trained in how to recognize the signs of anaphylaxis, and in how to administer an epiPen injection.

    Schools have frequently been sued when children have died from asthma or anaphylaxis. In such cases, the children often had had medication prescribed to manage their conditions, but the medication was locked up under the care of a “responsible adult.” Trying to limit insulin injections to nurses will lead to children dying at school from diabetic shock.

  17. Richard Aubrey says:

    ref. sunscreen. See Vitamin D deficiency. Had to sign a special form to get mine tested during my routine exam this year. So I asked. It’s thought that Vitaming D deficiency is common, and causes problems. So maybe anyone who helps put sunscreen on a kid to protect him during his sprint through the actinic downpour from school to bus could be sued.