The Science on Women and Science, is a collection of essays by researchers who disagree on why women lag behind men in science careers. Is it gender bias? Differences in ability or interest? Sean Cavanagh summarizes on Curriculum Matters:
Some of the essayists, like Spelke and Ellison, argue that research shows that men and women have the same intrinsic cognitive abilities and motivation for math and science careers. . . . The evidence shows that gender stereotypes are having an impact on leading women away from math and science fields, the authors explain.
But others, like authors Jerre Levy and Doreen Kimura, have a different take. . . . They say research has shown a connection between genetic and hormonal differences between males and females, which affect behavior and choice of occupation.
There are more men at the very top and the very bottom of the bell curve. “In consequence, there would still be more males than females who meet even minimum standards to be academic engineers, physical scientists, or mathematicians, and many more men than women with exceptionally high levels of talent,” Levy and Kimura write.