One-to-one tutoring by teachers is the most effective intervention for struggling readers, concludes a Johns Hopkins research analysis.
1. One-to-one tutoring works. Teachers are more effective as tutors than paraprofessionals or volunteers, and an emphasis on phonics greatly improves tutoring outcomes.
2. Although one-to-one phonetic tutoring for first graders is highly effective, effects last into the upper elementary grades only if classroom interventions continue past first grade.
3. Small group tutorials can be effective, but are not as effective as one-to-one instruction by teachers or paraprofessionals.
4. Classroom instructional process approaches, especially cooperative learning and structured phonetic models, have strong effects for low achievers (as well as other students).
5. Traditional computer-assisted instruction programs have little impact on reading.
The review lists reading programs with strong evidence of effectiveness; the list includes Success for All (developed at Johns Hopkins) and Direct Instruction.